海外留学生作业网课优质服务团队

留学Essay、Assignment、Report、Paper代写、网课服务平台

微信咨询:equality2hao

英国论文格式_英国论文范本

唯一网址:https://www.essayquality.com/

英文论文代写,英文论文定制,专业团队100%原创,英文论文格式范本,英国论文代写,英国作业代写,英国代写Essay.

英文毕业论文格式

英文论文格式范例

英文小论文格式

英文学术论文格式

英文论文结构

英文论文页边距

英国论文格式
 

 

英国论文格式,英国论文范本,英国论文

英语论文写作有其固定的写作的格式,而正确掌握写作格式对提高英语论文写作质量及写作效率有着不可或缺的作用。小编对英语论文的基本写作格式进行了汇总,并对其相应的要求进行了简要的概括,希望能为英语论文写作提供帮助。

                                                  

1.目录(Contents)。目录是英语论文写作的一项重要组成部分。首先“目录”一词需要用“contents”表示;且目录项目需要单独成页,目录内字体需选用times new roman 字体,字号选用小四号字,调至1.5倍行距,无需加粗。其次,目录需从introduction开始,然后是各级标题,且需要依次表明序号。再次,目录中应避免出现中英文摘要及关键词。最后,打印目录时若目录只有一页则单独打印,若为两页或两页以上则需进行双面打印,并表明页码。

2.题目(Title)。英语论文题目应选用times new roman 字体,字号选用小二号字,和后内容无空格。题目下方为学生名字和学号,学生姓名和学号间需空五个空格。该行和摘要空一行。

3.摘要(Abstract)。摘要需尽可能将字数控制在200-250字之间;该部分行间距应设置为20磅,字体选用times new roman 字体,字号选用五号字。Abstract与Key words均加粗。Key words与 introduction 间空一行,行距为20磅。

    4.介绍(introduction)。摘要是全面的引领,需要对全文内容进行高度概括及引导,但写作时又不可过于繁冗复杂,需要语言简洁干练的对研究现状、目的及研究方法等进行说明,并对国内外的研究情况进行综述,并对主要研究者的主要文献、观点等进行罗列;字数应控制再500字左右。

5.一级标题(Level header)。一级标题序号需左边顶格,字体选用times new roman 字体,字号选用小四号字,字体需加粗,行距为20磅,且需要和后边内容空一行,标题首字符大写。标题下正文选用字体选用times new roman 字体,字号选用五号字。

6.二级标题(Two level heading)。二级标题选用times new roman 字体,字号小四号字,行距为20磅,和正文间不空行。二级标题序号需缩进两个空格,标题内首字母大写。正文选用选用times new roman 字体,字号选用五号字。

7.三级标题(Three level heading)。三级标题选用times new roman 字体,字号选用五号字,行距为20磅,向右缩进四个空格,无需和正文空行。

8.结论(Conclusion)。该部分是对文章的总结,该段选用五号times new roman字体。

9.参考文献(References)。该部分需要另起一行,选用小四号times new roman字体,选用的参考文献需要中英文结合,且英文参考文献应放到前边。

 

    英语论文写作时按照上述格式进行写作可使论文更具条理性与规范性,所以,大家在写作英语论文时需要认真对写作格式进行了解及掌握,以提高写作质量。.


英国留学生经济规划论文


影响建设项目的生产因素

可能影响生产建设项目的四个主要因素是土地、劳动力、资金成本和企业家。

土地被定义为“包括所有自然产生的资源和其供应的固定土地”。 [1]土地作为一种固定资源是有限量的,而且价格根据位置而可以有所不同。主要有四种类型的土地: 

农用地是指适合农业生产,农作物和牲畜生长的土地。 [2]

棕色地块/土地是被荒废或未被充分利用及现有的工业和商业设施的土地再利用。通过真实的或想象的环境污染物进行设施的扩展或重建是复杂的。 [3]

绿化带或绿地在土地利用总体规划用于保留周围基本上没有开发,野生或农业用地或邻近市区的区域政策和土地使用标识。 [4]


通过自己购买欲望购买的投资土地,在不久的将来他/她可能想将其出售,或给其他人作为礼物。

 

What factors of production can affect a construction project

There are four main factors of production that can affect a construction project; they are land, labour, capital costs and an entrepreneur.

Land is defined as ‘land comprises all naturally occurring resources whose supply is inherently fixed’. [1] Land is a fixed resource as there is a limited amount, and price can vary depending on location. There are four main types of land: 

Agricultural land denotes the land suitable for agricultural production, both crops and livestock. [2]

Brownfield Site/Land are abandoned or underused industrial and commercial facilities available for re-use. Expansion or redevelopment of such a facility may be complicated by real or perceived environmental contaminations. [3]

A green belt or greenbelt is a policy and land use designation used in land use planning to retain areas of largely undeveloped, wild, or agricultural land surrounding or neighbouring urban areas. [4]

An Investment land is purchased at ones own desire, he/she may want to sell it in the near future or to give it to someone as a gift.

Land Value

Land Value = Aggregate Gross Revenues – Total Excepted Costs

Capitalisation RateThe price of land is determined by the use to which it can be put into, however it can vary overtime, but, not only does price change overtime but also interest rates can change very suddenly, and high interest rates tend to put people off in purchasing land. Site values are generally in the range of 20% to 25% of the total cost dwellings, the following formula is used to determine land value:

Land Value is also affected by:

Supply and demand, the supply of land is fixed although it use can always be altered.

The permitted of land use to which it can be put under planning regulations.

The location of the land, the more versatile the land the higher price it has.

Physical characteristics of land may alter the cost of development.

Land is a factor that can immensely affect a construction project as there are many ‘sub-factors’ which can make one bit of land more attractive to the buyer than the other as each type of land has its own advantages and disadvantages. Therefore if the correct decisions are made when purchasing land, it should minimise delays on a construction project.

Labour

Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the market for labour. Labour markets function through the interaction of workers and employers. Labour economics looks at the suppliers of labour services (workers), the demanders of labour services (employers), and attempts to understand the resulting pattern of wages, employment, and income. In economics, labour is a measure of the work done by human beings. It is conventionally contrasted with such other factors of production as land and capital. [5]

The employment rate for the three months to March 2010 was 72.0 per cent. The rate was down 0.3 on the quarter and it has not been lower since the three months to September 1996. The number of people in employment fell by 76,000 on the quarter to reach 28.83 million. The number of full-time workers fell by 103,000 over the quarter but the number of part-time workers increased by 27,000. The number of employees and self-employed people working part-time because they could not find a full-time job increased by 25,000 on the quarter to reach 1.07 million, the highest figure since comparable records began in 1992.

The unemployment rate for the three months to March 2010 was 8.0 per cent, up 0.2 on the quarter. The number of unemployed people increased by 53,000 over the quarter, to reach 2.51 million, the highest figure since the three months to December 1994. The number of people unemployed for up to six months fell by 52,000, to reach 1.21 million. However, the number of people unemployed for more than twelve months increased by 94,000 over the quarter to reach 757,000, the highest figure since the three months to May 1997. [6]

Large construction companies only tend to employ labourers from larger agencies. Due to the fact that agencies are making labourers redundant, therefore there is a fewer number of labourers for construction companies to employ. This can be a large influence on the overall production of a construction.

Capital Costs

Capital costs are costs incurred on the purchase of land, buildings, construction and equipment to be used in the production of goods or the rendering of services. In other words, the total cost needed to bring a project to a commercially operable status. However, capital costs are not limited to the initial construction of a factory or other business. For example, the purchase of a new machine that will increase production and last for years is a capital cost.

Capital costs do not include labour costs except for the labour used for construction. Unlike operating, capital costs are one-time expenses, although payment may be spread out over many years in financial reports and tax returns. Capital costs are fixed and are therefore independent of the level of output. [7]

In the construction industry it is very important to look out for capital costs, as some items may have a high capital, but they may have little return. For example purchasing a crane for a construction project would have a high capital but it is a very efficient plant therefore giving a high return. Thus, looking at capital costs can increase the production of a construction project.

Entrepreneur

An entrepreneur is a person who comes up with a new idea or invention and brings together a country's resources (land, labour and capital) to take the idea to the marketplace.

Entrepreneurs are vital to economic growth and, consequently, to higher living standards. Thus, legislators and other leaders who create economic policies should strive to encourage the innovation and risk taking of entrepreneurs. Enforcing property rights through contract, patent and copyright laws; encouraging competition through free trade, deregulation and antitrust legislation; and promoting a healthy economic climate through Federal Reserve anti-inflation initiatives—these are all examples of policies that empower entrepreneurs to be creative and take risks.

The accomplishments of entrepreneurs in our modern world have been possible because of a climate of individual freedom that is so rare in human history. The society that does not honor entrepreneurial accomplishment will find fewer able people engaged in wealth creation. History has shown time and again that economies that appreciate the benefits created by entrepreneurs flourish, while those that devise laws and regulations aimed at seizing the entrepreneurs' rewards founder. [8]

An entrepreneur takes risk and only sometimes does it pay off. Without any risk takers, the construction industry would not move forward. An entrepreneur would perhaps buy a plot of land, and develop it, not only to they boost the construction industry they also employ people to work for them. Therefore, entrepreneurs can enhance the production of a construction project.

Task 2

In the construction industry there are three main markets; public, private and third sector. Each of them has their own ways in benefiting the construction industry.

Generally, during any recession public sector investment tends to run counter cyclical to private sector investment (as government attempt to soften the blow of declining levels of private investment), although this is largely dependent on the state of public Finances. The residential and commercial sectors in the UK are likely to be the hardest hit, particularly any speculative building.

However, it should be noted that the sectoral impact of this recession is likely to be slightly different to past experiences, largely because of the effects of PFI. Much public investment is now reliant on private sector financing and this is clearly going to have an effect on the public sectors ability to deliver projects and hence their potential to influence the marketplace.

On the other hand, infrastructure activity increased strongly through 2008 as a number of major projects got on site and this growth is expected to continue through 2009. In contrast the outlook for industrial construction is very negative, with manufacturing output in free fall during 2008 and with little hope of a recovery during 2009.

Infrastructure demand in London saw the fastest expansion. Another major project to be awarded in 2009 in the UK was CrossRail, with a budget of $30 billion; construction is due to start in 2010. CrossRail, along with the 2012 Olympics, could make the South East of England something of a hotbed of construction activity. However, both projects are not likely to be enough to offset the declines in the property sectors and UK construction spending is expected to decline significantly for the first time since the recession in the early 1990s. [9]

From the graph above we can see that the public sector is more consistent than the public sector. The public sector had a large decrease when the rescission hit, this is due to the fact that private sector is independently funded where as the public sector is funded by the government which uses the tax-payers money.

The third sector is also funded by the government, but they are non-profit making organisations. Non-profit making organisations tend to help the local area or community and all surpluses are not distrusted but it is put back into the company to help it grow andachieve its goal. The presence of a large non-profit sector is sometimes seen as an indicator of a healthy economy in local and national financial measurements. With a growing number of non-profit organizations focused on social services, the environment, education and other unmet needs throughout society, the non-profit sector is increasingly central to the health and well-being of society. [10]

Task 3

Any type of construction project requires funding no matter how big or how small, and the source of the funding/finance can vary. These are personal savings, retained profit, other loans, overdraft facilities, grants, venture capital, lottery funding and preference shares.

Personal Savings

Personal saving has been defined as disposable income minus personal consumption expenditure. In other words, income that is not consumed by immediately buying goods and services is saved. Other kinds of saving can occur, as with corporate retained earnings (profits minus dividend and tax payments) and a government budget surplus. [11]

However not many people use this method as a source of finance. The main reason being that not many people earn enough money per annum to be able to afford to fully run a construction project. On the other hand it is perhaps the safest way to get hold of a reasonable sum of money with out any major consequences.

Retained Profit

When a business or a construction company makes a profit and it does not spend it, it keeps it, and accountants call profits that are kept and not spent retained profits. The retained profit is then available to use within the business or construction company to help with buying new machinery, vehicles, and computers and so on or developing it in any other way. Retained profits are also kept if the owners think that they may have difficulties in the future.

This is a more common method used to fund a construction project as it is a more realistic vision, and it is possible to base the size of the construction project on the amount of retained profit that is received per month. Quite often retained profit it used in emergency or sometimes put back into the company to expand it, and even some people do not spend that money at all, the reason for this being is having that retained profit to fall back on to or in other words for a peace of mind.

Other Loans

In a loan, the borrower initially receives or borrows an amount of money, called the principal, from the lender, and is obligated to pay back or repay an equal amount of money to the lender at a later time. [12]

Typically, the money is paid back in regular instalments, or partial repayments; in an annuity, each instalment is the same amount. The loan is generally provided at a cost, referred to as interest on the debt, which provides an incentive for the lender to engage in the loan. In a legal loan, each of these obligations and restrictions is enforced by contract, which can also place the borrower under additional restrictions known as loan covenants. Although this article focuses on monetary loans, in practice any material object might be lent.

Long Term (Mortgage)

This is by far the most common loan used through out the world. A mortgage loan is a loan secured by real property through the use of a mortgage note which evidences the existence of the loan and the encumbrance of that realty through the granting of a mortgage which secures the loan. However, the word mortgage alone, in everyday usage, is most often used to mean mortgage loan.

By looking at the mortgage calculator, we can see that for an average £250,000 house, with a deposit of 5%, also an interest rate of 1.97% and is to be repaid over 30 years that give a total repayment of £880.06 per month, and the interest is £389.90. This is the general idea of a mortgage, it is considered as a long term loan

Short Term

A short term loan is used for emergencies, money that is required in short notice and paid back in a short time. However interest rates are catastrophically high.

We can see that to borrow £200, and pay it back in 15 days, the interest is £35.90 which is very high. The advantage of a short term loan is that is it very flexible, the person borrowing the money has control when they wish to pay.

Overdraft Facilities

An overdraft occurs when withdrawals from a bank account exceed the available balance. In this situation a person is said to be 'overdrawn'.

If there is a prior agreement with the account provider for an overdraft protection plan, and the amount overdrawn is within this authorised overdraft limit, then interest is normally charged at the agreed rate. If the balance exceeds the agreed terms, then fees may be charged and higher interest rate might apply. [13]

This is similar to a short term loan but, it is not applied for. An advantage of this is that it is great for a short term loan, or that little extra that may be required for buying that television. However if is not paid back soon, then interests rate will rocket. Some major banks or building societies do offer 0% interest on overdrafts but only for a while. In terms of construction an overdraft should be the last resort for funding, and it should not be looked at as a solution.

Grants

Grants are funds disbursed by one party, often a Government Department, Corporation, Foundation or Trust, to a recipient, often (but not always) a non-profit entity, educational institution, business or an individual. In order to receive a grant, some form of 'Grant Writing' often referred to as either a proposal or an application is usually required.

A grant is great for any one and everyone, they are given to people and they do not need to be paid back. In most circumstances they are only small sums of money. In addition to this, these grants are only given for specific purposes or given to those who need it. For construction purposes they are given out but only for specific part of the project for example the windows or exterior finishes, it all depends on the client.

Venture Capital

Venture capital is provided as seed funding to early-stage, high-potential, growth companies and more often after the seed funding round as growth funding round in the interest of generating a return through an eventual realization event such as an IPO or trade sale of the company. Venture capital investments are generally made in cash in exchange for shares in the invested company.

 


热门服务
作业代写
Paper代写
Report代写
北美作业代写
美国作业代写
英国作业代写
澳洲作业代写
留学生代写
澳洲留学生代写
澳洲代写
美国代写
加拿大代写
北美网课代修
加拿大网课代修
美国网课代修
微积分网课代上
新加坡网课代修
Econ网课代修
英国网课代上
澳洲网课代上
英国代上网课
经济学代考
美国数学代考
澳洲数学代考
英国数学代考
加拿大数学代考
留学生作业代写
经济学代做,经济学代写,ECONOMICS代写
留学生exam代考
北美代写专栏
加拿大论文代写
新加坡代写专栏
Paper代写专栏
留学生作业代写
英国论文代写专栏
美国论文代写专栏
网课代修
网课代上
网课代修
美国网课托管
加拿大网课代修
美国网课代上
加拿大网课代上
澳洲网课代修
网课代修推荐
网课代修价格
英国网课代修
网课托管价格
网课托管推荐
澳大利亚网课代上
网课代上价格
网课代上推荐
澳大利亚网课代修
英国网课代修
Econ网课代上
经济学网课代上
金融网课代上
物理网课代上
统计网课代上
哲学网课代上
宏观经济网课代上
Econ网课代修
经济学网课代修
金融网课代修
物理网课代修
统计网课代修
经济学网课代修
会计网课代修
宏观经济网课代修
数学网课代修
微积分网课代修
网课托管
美国网课代修,美国网课代上,美国代上网课
网课代上,英国代上网课,英国网课代修
英国网课代修,英国网课托管,英国代上网课
exam代考
Final exam代考
Midterm代考
加拿大代考
北美代考
网课代考价格
数学代考
留学生代考
Online exam代考
online quiz代考
代考价格
代考推荐
会计代考
金融代考
北美代考推荐
北美代考价格
美国Final exam代考
澳洲Final exam代考
英国Final exam代考
加拿大Final exam代考
网课托管
美国Midterm代考
澳洲Midterm代考
温哥华代考
英国Midterm代考
加拿大Midterm代考
ONLINE QUIZ代考
北美代考多少钱
美国网课代考
澳洲网课代考
英国网课代考
加拿大网课代考
FINAL EXAM代考
网课代考
网课EXAM代考
代考分享
微积分代考
Econ代考
经济学代考
留学生代考
会计代考
Accounting代考
Final exam代考
Midterm 代考
加拿大代考
美国代考
北美代考
网课代考
数学代考
留学生代考
Online exam代考
online quiz代考
代考价格
代考推荐
数学代考
加拿大网课代考
美国网课代考
exam代考专栏
数学作业代写
北美网课代考
北美代考
留学生作业专栏
assignment代写专栏
MIDTERM代考
金融代考
物理代考
成绩单
加拿大essay专栏
美国essay专栏
英国essay专栏
北美essay专栏
留学生作业专栏
微信

微信客服

qq

QQ客服

QQ联系:2232468560

微信客服:equality2hao

北京市海淀区国际大厦9层

X

微信识别二维码

微信号:equality2hao

(点击微信号复制添加好友)

微信号已复制,请打开微信添加好友!
QQ号已复制,请打开QQ添加好友!