Taking into account gender segregation in most occupations, the separation of gender and occupational effects means that attempts at workplace learning support have led to particular difficulties(BANGet.,al, 2010). In addition, women with children tend to work more in part-time jobs, which can lead to task discrimination because of the high priority and highly discretionary work allocated to full-time employees. For example, there are ambiguous conclusions about the gender impact of providing social support at work, for example, finding that female employees and senior staff are more likely to work. This may lead to more feedback and more information exchange with women's work, rather than men. 68. The higher general social support for female employees at work is determined, but the size of the effect is negligible. In the four US organizations (116 cases) found that men and women feel the support of the supervisors and colleagues no difference(Voet.,al, 2015). On the other hand, other authors argue that women are faced with the problem of access to and use of social capital in their work. The report says women are often excluded from some informal networks, which means that they have limited access to work-related information compared to male colleagues.
Women now make up a small proportion of executives at listed companies.But most women have patience, perseverance, character, which is the executive essential quality, and reduce a lot of men executives biting lie passive, women's relatively peaceful, delicate character so they when choosing the company's investment decision-making is relatively safe.Women are born with some of the dominant genes of managers. Women have a lot of advantages in management talent. It is a characteristic of femininity and it can be achieved if it is fully played out. Women's unique qualities can make them more and more important in the future. Modern business women are no less than men in leadership(SINGH, 2014).
McKinsey also surveyed fortune 500 companies in the United States, and found that companies with more senior managers were performing better on average than those with fewer female executives. Women are conscientious, careful and stable. Women managers are more resilient, stronger in adversity, good at communicating, easier to convince others, and effective as lubricants. Toughness is an advantage for women leaders. Maybe all the differences come from
The primary difference between men and women is a variety of natural differences shaped the qualities of female leadership.Many scholars study of female executives of listed companies will not have a negative impact; on the contrary female executives of some natural strengths of the investment behavior of listed companies will have a positive impact. Because of gender differences, female executives are more focused on the profit changes of listed companies, while male executives’ pay more attention to the growth of the main operating income of listed companies.
The standard deviation of male executives' performance evaluation was higher than that of women. Female executives, however, due to their own personality, when considering the company's investment decision-making more careful, cautious, thinking more comprehensive, more conservative, low growth strategy, tend to avoid risk, to reduce a lot of blind, aggressive investment behavior, is advantageous to the listed company long-term steady development of whole, male executives in the company executives more than women, when there is energy, and is more inclined to high risk and high return of investment.
Scholars at home and abroad have shown that women and men have the same, even higher, management motivation from different perspectives. Once they enter the company's top management or the company's board of directors will have a favorable impact on the company. The main ways to change the company's investment decisions are to make the overall development of the company more stable. Therefore, the listed companies should not be discriminated against in the selection of executives. The gender difference has no significant negative impact on the investment behavior of listed companies.
Teamwork has put forward effective strategies for employment safety.
The company is implementing problem-solving teams, cross-functional planning teams, sales account teams, self-directed work teams, technical integration teams, and authorized production teams. The effective teamwork and cooperation are between the management structure and the rest of the hierarchy(SALUSTRI, 2015).
He argues that a convincing argument that the need for teamwork at the top of the business is often exaggerated. This view makes it easy for managers to erroneously conclude that teamwork and cooperation among all managers are neither necessary nor prioritized. In contrast, front-line managers - managers who directly influence the production of products and services - are information channels that can be important transformers. Or they can prevent the implementation of change, and in the company vertical and horizontal to stalemate communication.
In a review of the strategy implementation study, it is concluded that front-line managers are critical to the successful implementation of strategic initiatives because they understand the operational content and its role in actual organizational change. The strategic participation of these key personnel is related to the improvement of organizational performance. They record that when low-level managers think that change is in line with the interests of the time, they can act or not to delay, reduce or completely disrupt the implementation of the work.
We believe that teamwork and collaboration for frontline managers are critical to the long-term success and viability of the organization. However, this problem is often overlooked or has not received serious attention. Many front managers who are in direct contact with employees, customers and suppliers often can not prove the most basic cooperation and cooperation with each other. In some companies, this is related to the goal; in other respects, the structure. For whatever reason, we responded to the manager's quote at our opening quote: "When the manager is not working together, bad things will definitely follow."
Through cooperation with the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), the target company was surveyed as part of a large-scale survey of Chinese enterprises' competitiveness. Clarify the problem. The survey respondents were CEOs and HR / CFOs of the sample companies. The CEO was invited to evaluate the company's TMT network contact and team dynamics and invited the HR / CFO to fill in the TMT background-related projects and another innovative questionnaire. This multiple teller method helps to reduce the potential common method of using a single informer. In addition, projects related to business innovation were measured in a follow-up survey a year later(Ruiz-Jiménezet.,al, 2016).
TMT age and gender diversity were measured using the Blau index, where H was the percentage of TMT members in each educational and functional category.
The age and sex of TMT members are calculated by the coefficient of variation, i.e. the standard deviation is divided by the average of the variables.
Although studies on gender quotas have shown an increase in the proportion of female directors, we have little understanding of the deeper impact, for example, in terms of independence, age, and gender differences. The first set of questions we investigate in this paper involves whether the quota has changed the gender gap between male and female directors. Since Norwegian companies now have to hire female directors internally to achieve a 40% goal, should we expect the independence gap between women and male directors to be small? Has the age gap between female directors and male directors widened due to the increasing number of women employed recently With the pressure of recruiting more female directors, the Norwegian company lowered expectations of the level of education for female candidates, resulting in a reduction in the educational gap between women and male directors Second, gender quotas can also be seen as a way of encouraging women to take leadership positions throughout the conference room and the company. To date, there have been few studies on the impact of gender quotas or gender diversity on women's senior leadership positions. Therefore, the next set of questions that we propose in this article will explore whether gender quotas and gender diversity of the board are related to how gender is associated with the highest leaders of the organization, such as the chairman and chief executive of the board. In particular, in the existing literature, the relationship between female CEO and female director has been neglected. Previous studies have rarely explored the dynamic relationship between women's board of directors and women CEOs, although previous studies have analyzed women's barriers to becoming CEOs. Therefore, it is meaningful to analyze the link between the chairman of the board of directors and the presence of female CEOs(Doms, &zuKnyphausen-Aufseß, 2014).
Whether women are leaders who are different from men's leadership are a controversial topic, and studies of gender leadership styles show that in many cases there is no difference between the leading position between men and women. In this article, we do not have Claiming that women lead differently as the chairman or chief executive officer of the board, but rather try to understand the impact of quotas on the number of women in leadership positions. The gender of the chairman is important because it may affect the contribution of the female director to the decision-making process. In fact, there is a negative correlation between the male CEO and the chairman of the board of men, and the negative contribution of women to the decision of the board of directors is that the gender of the leader may be an important factor in determining the level of influence of female directors. Women leaders in meeting rooms may make women directors feel more comfortable with their views, while male directors can show more respect and openness to women's perspectives. Women leaders can not only improve the effectiveness of board decisions, but also the operation of the entire organization. Female managers may be easier and more likely to change than male colleagues. In fact, the gender of the CEO and the chairman is considered to affect the level of organizational innovation. In the survey, only 5% of the CEO and 7% of the chair is female; if the CEO and the chairman are women, the level of organizational innovation will be higher.